The Controlled Avalanche Transit-time Triode (CATT)
Avalanche mode amplification relies on avalanche multiplication as avalanche mode switching. However, for this mode of operation, it is necessary that Miller's avalanche multiplication coefficient be kept almost constant for large output voltage swings: if this condition is not fulfilled, significant amplitude distortion arises on the output signal. Consequently
- avalanche transistors used for application in switching circuits cannot be used since Miller's coefficient varies widely with the collector to emitter voltage
- the operating point of the device cannot be in the negative resistance of the avalanche breakdown region for the same reason
These two requirements imply that a device used for amplification need a physical structure different from that of a typical avalanche transistor. The Controlled Avalanche Transit-time Triode (CATT), designed for microwave amplification, has a quite large lightly-doped region between the base and the collector regions, giving the device a collector-emitter breakdown voltage fairly high compared to bipolar transistors of the same geometry. The current amplification mechanism is the same of the avalanche transistor, i.e. carrier generation by impact ionization, but there is also a transit-time effect as in IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes, where a high-field region travels along the avalanching junction, precisely in along the intrinsic region. The device structure and choice of bias point imply that
- Miller's avalanche multiplication coefficient M is limited to about 10.
- The transit-time effect keeps this coefficient almost constant and independent of the collector-to-emitter voltage.
The theory for this kind of avalanche transistor is described completely in the paper Eshbach, Se Puan & Tantraporn (1976), which also shows that this semiconductor device structure is well suited for microwave power amplification. It can deliver several watts of radio frequency power at a frequency of several gigahertz and it also has a control terminal, the base. However, it is not widely used since it requires voltages exceeding 200 volts to work properly, while gallium arsenide or other compound semiconductor FETs deliver a similar performance while being easier to work with. A similar device structure, proposed more or less in the same period in the paper Carrol & Winstanley (1974), was the IMPISTOR, being a transistor with IMPATT collector-base junction.
Famous quotes containing the words controlled and/or avalanche:
“It does not follow, because our difficulties are stupendous, because there are some souls timorous enough to doubt the validity and effectiveness of our ideals and our system, that we must turn to a state controlled or state directed social or economic system in order to cure our troubles.”
—Herbert Hoover (18741964)
“The Humanity of men and women is inversely proportional to their Numbers. A Crowd is no more human than an Avalanche or a Whirlwind. A rabble of men and women stands lower in the scale of moral and intellectual being than a herd of Swine or of Jackals.”
—Aldous Huxley (18941963)