ATX - Power Supply

Power Supply

The ATX specification requires the power supply to produce three main outputs, +3.3 V, +5 V and +12 V. Low-power −12 V and 5 VSB (standby) supplies are also required. A −5 V output was originally required because it was supplied on the ISA bus, but it became obsolete with the removal of the ISA bus in modern PCs and has been removed in later versions of the ATX standard.

Originally, the motherboard was powered by one 20-pin connector. An ATX power supply provides a number of peripheral power connectors, and (in modern systems) two connectors for the motherboard: a 4-pin auxiliary connector providing additional power to the CPU, and a main 24-pin power supply connector, an extension of the original 20-pin version.

24-pin ATX12V 2.x power supply connector
(20-pin omits the last four: 11, 12, 23 and 24)
Color Signal Pin Pin Signal Color
black" rowspan="2">Orange +3.3 V 1 13 +3.3 V Orange
+3.3 V sense Brown
Orange +3.3 V 2 14 −12 V Blue
Black Ground 3 15 Ground Black
Red +5 V 4 16 Power on Green
Black Ground 5 17 Ground Black
Red +5 V 6 18 Ground Black
Black Ground 7 19 Ground Black
Grey Power good 8 20 Reserved N/C
Purple +5 V standby 9 21 +5 V Red
Yellow +12 V 10 22 +5 V Red
Yellow +12 V 11 23 +5 V Red
Orange +3.3 V 12 24 Ground Black
  • Pins 8, and 16 (shaded) are control signals, not power:
    • Power on is pulled up to +5 V by the PSU, and must be driven low to turn on the PSU.
    • Power good is low when other outputs have not yet reached, or are about to leave, correct voltages.
  • Pin 13 supplies +3.3 V power and also has a second thinner wire for remote sensing.
  • Pin 20 (formerly −5 V, white wire) is absent in current power supplies; it was optional in ATX and ATX12V ver. 1.2, and deleted as of ver. 1.3.
  • The right-hand pins are numbered 11–20 in the 20-pin version.

Four wires have special functions:

  • PS_ON# or Power on is a signal from the motherboard to the power supply. When the line is connected to ground (by the motherboard), the power supply turns on. It is internally pulled up to +5 V inside the power supply.
  • PWR_OK or Power good is an output from the power supply that indicates that its output has stabilized and is ready for use. It remains low for a brief time (100–500 ms) after the PS_ON# signal is pulled low.
  • +5 VSB or +5 V standby supplies power even when the rest of the supply lines are off. This can be used to power the circuitry that controls the Power On signal.
  • +3.3 V sense should be connected to the +3.3 V on the motherboard or its power connector. This connection allows for remote sensing of the voltage drop in the power supply wiring.

Generally, supply voltages must be within ±5% of their nominal values at all times. The little-used negative supply voltages, however, have a ±10% tolerance. There is a specification for ripple in a 10 Hz–20 MHz bandwidth:

Supply Tolerance Range (min. to max.) Ripple (p. to p. max.)
+5 VDC ±5% (±0.25 V) +4.75 V to +5.25 V 50 mV
−5 VDC ±10% (±0.50 V) –4.50 V to –5.50 V 50 mV
+12 VDC ±5% (±0.60 V) +11.40 V to +12.60 V 120 mV
−12 VDC ±10% (±1.2 V) –10.8 V to –13.2 V 120 mV
+3.3 VDC ±5% (±0.165 V) +3.135 V to +3.465 V 50 mV
+5 VSB ±5% (±0.25 V) +4.75 V to +5.25 V 50 mV

Read more about this topic:  ATX

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