Although the term also describes soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery weapons, the individuals who operate them are called gunners whatever their rank, however 'gunner' is the lowest rank in artillery arms. There is no generally recognised generic term for a gun, howitzer, mortar, and so forth: some armies use 'artillery piece', while others use 'gun'. The projectiles fired are typically either 'shot' (if solid) or 'shell' if not. Shell is a widely used generic term for a projectile, which is a component of munitions.
The gunners and their guns are usually grouped in teams called either 'crews' or 'detachments'. Several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery usually called a battery, although sometimes called a company. Batteries are roughly equivalent to a company in the infantry, and are combined into larger military organizations for administrative and operational purpose.
During military operations the role of field artillery is to provide close support to other arms in combat or to attack targets. The latter role is typically achieved by delivering either high explosive munitions to inflict casualties on the enemy from casing fragments and other debris and blast, or by demolition of enemy positions, equipment and vehicles. Fire may be directed by an artillery observer or called onto map coordinates.
Military doctrine has played a significant influence on the core engineering design considerations of artillery ordnance through its history, in seeking to achieve a balance between delivered volume of fire with ordnance mobility. However, during the modern period the consideration of protecting the gunners also arose due to the late-19th century introduction of the new generation of infantry weapons using conoidal bullet, better known as the Minié ball, with a range almost as long as that of field artillery.
The gunners' increasing proximity to and participation in direct combat against other combat arms and attacks by aircraft made the introduction of a gun shield necessary. The problems of how to employ a fixed or horse towed gun in mobile warfare necessitated the development of new methods of transporting the artillery into combat. Two distinct forms of artillery developed: the towed gun, which was used primarily to attack or defend a fixed line; and the self-propelled gun, which was designed to accompany a mobile force and provide continuous fire support. These influences have guided the development of artillery ordnance, systems, organisations, and operations until the present, with artillery systems capable of providing support at ranges from as little as 100 m to the intercontinental ranges of ballistic missiles. The only combat in which artillery is unable to take part in is close quarters combat.
Read more about this topic: Artillery
Other articles related to "crew, crewyard, workyard, crews":
... The shooter, gun crew, or close bystanders may perceive an increase in sound pressure level as well as an increase in muzzle blast and lead exposure ... at partially backward angles towards the shooter or gun crew ... avoid hearing damage with the muzzle blast partially vectored back towards the gun crew or spotters by arrowhead shaped reactive muzzle brakes found on sniper team fired anti ...
... early 1980s, if present at all, identify the major actors and crew, while the closing credits list an extensive cast and production crew ... Historically, however, opening credits have been the only source of crew credits and, largely, the cast, although over time the tendency to repeat the cast, and perhaps add a few players ... of holding the vast majority of cast and crew information for display at the end of the show ...
... the aid of Superman), and decided to form the superhero team called the Zoo Crew ... In Teen Titans #30-31 (December 2005-January 2006), Yankee Poodle and the rest of the Zoo Crew were featured in a short multi-part story purporting to be a ... This story followed the adventures of the Zoo Crew teammates in a grimmer, darker version of Earth-C, parodying the recent trend toward "grim and gritty" superhero comics ...
A crew is a body or a class of people who work at a common activity, generally in a structured or hierarchical organization. A location in which a crew works is called a crewyard or a workyard. The word has nautical resonances: the tasks involved in operating a ship, particularly a sailing ship, providing numerous specialities within a ship's crew, often organised with a chain of command. Traditional nautical usage strongly distinguishes officers from crew, though the two groups combined form the ship's company. Members of a crew are often referred to by the title "Crewman".
"Crew" also refers to the sport of rowing, where teams row competitively in racing shells.
"Crew" is used colloquially to refer to a small, tight-knit group of friends or associates engaged in criminal activity. Also used in reference to the traditional "unit" of criminals under the supervision of a caporegime in the American Mafia. However, the term is not specific to (Mafia-affiliated) organized crime.
Crew can refer simply to a group of friends, unrelated to crime or violence.
... a single ship for 18 months while swapping out crews at six-month intervals ... For the DD phase, Fletcher and her crew would deploy with their battle group this summer, but after six months, only the crew would return ... The ship would remain deployed and be manned by the crew from Kinkaid ...
Famous quotes containing the word crew:
“Nor aught availed him now
To have built in heavn high towrs; nor did he scape
By all his engines, but was headlong sent
With his industrious crew to build in hell.”
—John Milton (16081674)
“The crew was complete: it included a Boots
A maker of Bonnets and Hoods
A Barrister, brought to arrange their disputes
And a Broker, to value their goods.”
—Lewis Carroll [Charles Lutwidge Dodgson] (18321898)