Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."
AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others.
The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism, but has also suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science.
Other articles related to "artificial, intelligence, artificial intelligence":
... Y (ed.) (2010) Close Engagements with Artificial Companions Key Social, Psychological and Design issues ... (2007) Words and Intelligence I, Selected papers by Yorick Wilks ... (1991) Artificial Believers ...
... Areas of artificial intelligence deal with autonomous planning or deliberation for robotical systems to navigate through an environment ... Artificial intelligence and computer vision share other topics such as pattern recognition and learning techniques ... Consequently, computer vision is sometimes seen as a part of the artificial intelligence field or the computer science field in general ...
... Artificial Intelligence Best Original Score Nominated Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone Best Original Score Nominated 2002 Catch Me If You Can Best Original ... Artificial Intelligence Best Original Score Nominated 2005 Memoirs of a Geisha Best Original Score Won 2011 War Horse Best Original Score Nominated ... Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated 2002 Artificial Intelligence A.I ...
Famous quotes containing the words artificial and/or intelligence:
“A true politeness does not result from any hasty and artificial polishing, it is true, but grows naturally in characters of the right grain and quality, through a long fronting of men and events, and rubbing on good and bad fortune.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“Given for one instant an intelligence which could comprehend all the forces by which nature is animated and the respective positions of the beings which compose it, if moreover this intelligence were vast enough to submit these data to analysis, it would embrace in the same formula both the movements of the largest bodies in the universe and those of the lightest atom; to it nothing would be uncertain, and the future as the past would be present to its eyes.”
—Pierre Simon De Laplace (17491827)