Artificial Heart Valve - Mechanical Valves - Cavitation

Cavitation

Cavitation is an event that can lead to MHV failure. While this has been a relatively rare occurrence, in 1988 the Edwards-Duramedics bileaflet had 46 reported failures in 20,000 implants related to cavitation damage. Since then, manufacturers have made cavitation testing an essential part of the design verification process. Cavitation is the rapid formation of vaporous microbubbles in the fluid due to a local drop of pressure below the vaporization pressure at a given temperature. When conditions for cavitation are present bubbles will form and at the time of pressure recovery they will collapse or implode. This event will cause pressure or thermal shockwaves and fluid microjets which can damage a surface. These thermodynamic conditions are known to be the cause of MHV related erosion.

The valvular event that causes such cavitating conditions to exist is the closing mechanics of the MHV. Several causes of cavitation relating to valve closure have been identified. Squeeze flow is cavitation that is said to occur as the occluder approaches the housing during closure and fluid is squeezed between the occluder and the valve housing causing a low pressure formation. Water hammer is cavitation caused by the sudden stop of the valve occluder as it contacts the valve housing. This sudden retardation of the fluid retrograde inertia is said to put the fluid under tension causing cavitation. Squeeze flow is said to form a cloud of bubbles at the circumferential lip of the occluder whereas water hammer is said to be seen as transient bubbles at the occlude housing.

For either event, cavitation occurs on the upstream side of valve. Clinically, cavitation is of primary concern in the mitral position. This position is especially harsh due to the sudden ventricular pressure rise which drives the valve closure against a low left atrial pressure which is said to be the worst case condition thus position for cavitation to occur. Cavitation is also suspected as a contributing factor in blood cell damage and increased risk of thromboembloic complications.

The temporal rate of change of the left ventricular, measured as a slope of the ventricular pressure curve (dP/dt) is regarded as the best indicator for cavitation potential. Most MHV investigated generate cavitation only when the dP/dt is well above the physiological range. However investigations have found that several tilting disc valves and only one bileaflet valve, the Edwards-Duromedics, generate cavitation within the physiological range. Investigations have repeatedly demonstrated that bileaflet valves, with the exception of the Edwards Duramedics design, cavitate only at dP/dt levels well above the physiological range.

Read more about this topic:  Artificial Heart Valve, Mechanical Valves

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