Error Correction Procedures
To overcome problems associated with oligonucleotide quality several elaborate strategies have been developed, employing either separately prepared fishing oligonucleotides, mismatch binding enzymes of the mutS family or specific endonucleases from bacteria or phages. Nevertheless, all these strategies increase time and costs for gene synthesis based on the annealing of chemically synthesized oligonucleotides.
Massively parallel sequencing has also been used as a tool to screen complex oligonucleotide libraries and enable the retrieval of accurate molecules. In one approach, oligonucleotides are sequenced on the 454 pyrosequencing platform and a robotic system images and picks individual beads corresponding to accurate sequence. In another approach, a complex oligonucleotide library is modified with unique flanking tags before massively parallel sequencing. Tag-directed primers then enable the retrieval of molecules with desired sequences by dial-out PCR.
Increasingly, genes are ordered in sets including functionally related genes or multiple sequence variants on a single gene. Virtually all of the therapeutic proteins in development, such as monoclonal antibodies, are optimized by testing many gene variants for improved function or expression.
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