Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is a clause in the National Constitution of Japan that prohibits an act of war by the state. The Constitution came into effect on May 3, 1947, following World War II. In its text, the state formally renounces war as a sovereign right and bans settlement of international disputes through the use of force. The article also states that, to accomplish these aims, armed forces with war potential will not be maintained, although Japan maintains de facto armed forces, referred to as the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
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... In the Italian Constitution Article 11 is similar to the Japanese analogue, but the use of military forces is permitted for self-defence (articles 54 and 78) and also for peace-keeping purposes, if agreed with ...
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