Aquatic Toxicology - History


While basic research in toxicology began in multiple countries in the 1800s, it was not until around the 1930s that the use of acute toxicity testing, especially on fish, was established. Over the next two decades, the effects of chemicals and wastes on non-human species became more of a public issue and the era of the pickle-far bioassays began as efforts increased to standardize toxicity testing techniques. The passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1947 marked the first comprehensive legislation for the control of water pollution and was followed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1956. In 1962, public and governmental interests were renewed, in large part due to the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, and thee years later the Water Quality Act was passed which directed states to develop water quality standards. Public awareness, as well as scientific and governmental concern, continued to grow throughout the 1970s and by the end of the decade research had expanded to include hazard evaluation and risk analysis. In the subsequent decades, aquatic toxicology has continued to expand and internationalize so that there is now a strong application of toxicity testing for environmental protection.

Read more about this topic:  Aquatic Toxicology

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