Apple - Nutrition

Nutrition

Apples, with skin (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 218 kJ (52 kcal)
Carbohydrates 13.81 g
- Sugars 10.39 g
- Dietary fiber 2.4 g
Fat 0.17 g
Protein 0.26 g
Water 85.56 g
Vitamin A equiv. 3 μg (0%)
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.017 mg (1%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.026 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.091 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.061 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 0.041 mg (3%)
Folate (vit. B9) 3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C 4.6 mg (6%)
Calcium 6 mg (1%)
Iron 0.12 mg (1%)
Magnesium 5 mg (1%)
Phosphorus 11 mg (2%)
Potassium 107 mg (2%)
Zinc 0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales. Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of vitamin C, but are a rich source of other antioxidant compounds. Apple's antioxidant property prevents the damage to cells and tissues. The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss, and controlling cholesterol. The fiber contained in apples reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and (like most fruits and vegetables) they are bulky for their caloric content. However, apple seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside. It is usually not enough to be dangerous to humans, but can deter birds.

There is evidence from laboratory experiments that apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity. The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a small apple weighing roughly 149 grams contains roughly 77 calories.

Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in mice, providing a potential mechanism for the "prevention of the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging." Other studies have shown an "alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice. Researchers at the Chinese University of Hong Kong discovered that fruit flies who were fed an apple extract lived 10% longer than other flies who were fed a normal diet.

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