Apma Language - Grammar - Nouns

Nouns

Nouns in Apma are generally not preceded by articles. Plurality is indicated by placing the pronoun nii ("them") or a number after the noun:

bwihil = bird
bwihil nii = birds
bwihil katsil = three birds

Nouns may be either free, or directly possessed. Directly possessed nouns are suffixed to indicate whom an item belongs to. For example:

dalek = my voice
dalem = your voice
dalen = his/her voice
dalen subu = the chief's voice
dalekte = voice (generic)

Possession may also be indicated by the use of possessive classifiers, separate words that occur before or after the noun and take possessive suffixes. These classifiers are:

  • no- for general possessions (nok watang, "my basket")
  • bila- for things that are cared for, such as crops and livestock (bilada bo, "our pig")
  • ka- for things to be eaten (kam tsi, "your sugarcane")
  • ma- for things to be drunk (maa sileng, "their water")
  • na- for associations, over which the possessor has no control (vini nak, "my home island")

The possessive suffixes are as follows:

Person Apma
(Suru Mwerani dialect)
Apma
(Suru Rabwanga dialect)
Apma
(Suru Kavian dialect)
English
1st person singular -k -ngg + vowel -ngg + vowel "of mine"
2nd person singular -m -m -m "of yours" (singular)
3rd person singular -n -n -n "of his/hers/its"
1st person dual (inclusive) -daru -nd + vowel + ru -nd + vowel + ri "of ours" (yours and mine, two of us)
1st person dual (exclusive) -maru -maru -mari "of ours" (mine and another's)
2nd person dual -mru -muru -miri "of yours" (two of you)
3rd person dual -ru -ru -ri "of theirs" (two of them)
1st person plural (inclusive) -da -nd + vowel -nd + vowel "of ours" (yours and mine)
1st person plural (exclusive) -ma -ma -ma "of ours" (mine and others')
2nd person plural -mi -mi -mi "of yours" (plural)
3rd person plural (lengthened vowel) (lengthened vowel) (lengthened vowel) "of theirs"
Generic -kte -k -k -

In Suru Kavian dialect, vowels in certain directly possessed nouns and possessive classifiers change according to the pattern illustrated below. This does not occur in other dialects:

1st person singular nonggo bu
"my knife"
vilunggu
"my hair"
2nd person singular nom bu
"your knife"
vilum
"your hair"
3rd person singular nen bu
"his/her knife"
vilin
"his/her hair"
1st person plural
(inclusive)
nende bu
"our knife"
vilindi
"our hair"
1st person plural
(exclusive)
noma bu
"our knife"
viluma
"our hair"
2nd person singular nomi bu
"your knife"
vilumi
"your hair"
3rd person singular nee bu
"their knife"
vilii
"their hair"

A verb may be transformed into a noun by the addition of a nominalising suffix -an:

wel = to dance (verb)
welan = a dance (noun)

Modifiers generally come after a noun:

vet = stone
vet tewep = small stone
vet kavet = four stones

Read more about this topic:  Apma Language, Grammar

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Famous quotes containing the word nouns:

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