Amylase

Amylase /ˈæmɪleɪz/ is an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in human saliva, where it begins the chemical process of digestion. Foods that contain much starch but little sugar, such as rice and potato, taste slightly sweet as they are chewed because amylase turns some of their starch into sugar in the mouth. The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Plants and some bacteria also produce amylase. As diastase, amylase was the first enzyme to be discovered and isolated (by Anselme Payen in 1833). Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. All amylases are glycoside hydrolases and act on α-1,4-glycosidic bonds.

Read more about Amylase:  Uses, History, Human Evolution

Other articles related to "amylase, amylases":

Alpha-Amylase - Industrial Use
... α-Amylase is used in ethanol production to break starches in grains into fermentable sugars ... production of high-fructose corn syrup is the treatment of cornstarch with α-amylase, producing shorter chains of sugars called oligosaccharides ... An α-amylase called "Termamyl", sourced from Bacillus licheniformis, is also used in some detergents, especially dishwashing and starch-removing detergents ...
AMY1A
... Gene Ontology Molecular function • catalytic activity • alpha-amylase activity • calcium ion binding • protein binding • hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds • chloride ion binding • cation ... This gene is found in many organisms, see Alpha-Amylase ... Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of ...
AMY2B
3.2.1.1 Gene Ontology Molecular function • alpha-amylase activity • metal ion binding Cellular component • extracellular region Biological process • carbohydrate metabolic process • digestion Sources ... Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen ... The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas ...
AMY2A
... EC number 3.2.1.1 Gene Ontology Molecular function • alpha-amylase activity • calcium ion binding • chloride ion binding Cellular component • extracellular region ... Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen ... The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas ...
Amylase - Human Evolution
... Amylase is thought to have played a key role in human evolution in allowing humans an alternative to fruit and protein ... A duplication of the pancreatic amylase gene developed independently in humans and rodents, further suggesting its importance ... The salivary amylase levels found in the human lineage are six to eight times higher in humans than in chimpanzees, which are mostly fruit eaters and ingest little starch relative to humans ...