The Internal Revenue Service denies tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code to racially discriminatory private schools, and has established guidelines and procedures for determining whether a particular school is in fact racially nondiscriminatory. As a consequence, those private schools deemed by the IRS to be racially discriminatory are not eligible to receive tax deductible charitable contributions.
Plaintiffs/respondents, parents of African-American children in seven states where public schools had recently been desegregated, brought a nation-wide class action lawsuit against the Internal Revenue Service in federal district court, contending that IRS guidelines and procedures for determining whether private schools were racially discriminatory, and subsequent denial of tax exempt status to such schools, were insufficient. Federal law prohibited tax-exempt status to private schools that discriminate on the basis of race, but the parents contended that the standards the IRS used to determine if a school was discriminating were not capable of identifying all of the discriminating private schools. White parents were therefore able to avoid integration by sending their children to the private schools and deducting charitable contributions to the institution, thereby making it harder for black children to attend integrated schools.
Respondents also alleged that many racially segregated private schools (segregation academies) were created or expanded in respondents' communities at the time the public schools were undergoing desegregation, and had received tax exemptions despite the IRS policy and guidelines; and that these unlawful tax exemptions harmed respondents in that they constituted tangible financial aid for racially segregated educational institutions, and encouraged the organization and expansion of institutions that provided segregated educational opportunities for white students avoiding attendance in the public schools. Respondents did not allege that their children had ever applied or would ever apply for admission to any private school. Respondents sought declaratory and injunctive relief. The District Court dismissed the complaint on the ground that respondents lacked standing to bring the suit and the Court of Appeals reversed. The United States Supreme Court granted cert.
Two injuries were alleged:
- Direct harm by government financial aid (through allowing tax deductions for donations) to discriminatory schools. This was argued to be a stigmatic injury because of the appearance of government approval for discrimination against blacks.
- Tax exemptions for discriminatory schools impaired the ability of blacks to force desegregation of public schools, because white parents would simply withdraw their children from public schools and place them in discriminatory private schools.
Read more about this topic: Allen V. Wright
Other articles related to "facts, fact":
Facts usually refers to the usage as a plural noun of fact, an incontrovertible truth. Facts may also refer to:
- Carroll, Lewis, who wrote a poem called "Facts"
- FACTS (newspaper), program produced by Asia Television in Hong Kong
- Flexible AC transmission system, abbreviated FACTS
- Newdow, Michael, the leader of the church "First Amendment Church of True Science", which has the acronym FACTS
- Fact - Fact in Data Warehousing
- FACTS (newspaper) - was a weekly magazine from Switzerland, appearing in the publishing house Tamedia
- Facts (convention) - a comic, scifi and anime festival in Belgium
... The town's railway station is Marwar Bagra and is on the Samdari-Bhildi section of North Western Railway ... The Railway Board proposes to convert this meter gauge route to broad gauge in near future ...
... This is simply random facts about a certain aspect of football (e.g ... The different volumes of facts are organised with Roman Numerals e.g ... nothing is taken seriously and the last fact on Trev's list of facts is arguable, biased, or funny (e.g ...
... Facts regarding imperialism of the island are dispersed throughout the narrative, as well as facts about slavery in Jamaica and Jamaican folklore ... It is emphasized that the protagonists are generally unaware of these facts, which often serve to reveal the brutal nature of both slavery and imperialism ...
Famous quotes containing the word facts:
“Perhaps the facts most astounding and most real are never communicated by man to man.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.... I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“Plain women he regarded as he did the other severe facts of life, to be faced with philosophy and investigated by science.”
—George Eliot [Mary Ann (or Marian)