Adiposopathy - Pathophysiology - Anatomy


Diseased fat tissue surrounding various organs can cause illness, such as fat surrounding the heart, muscle, vessels, eyes, and bone. Some have suggested that diseased fat tissue surrounding the heart and vessels can contribute to inflammation and plaque rupture. Although not as well recognized, even the so-called “protective” subcutaneous fat tissue has the potential to be “sick” and contribute to metabolic disease. A prime example would be subcutaneous fat tissue found in the abdominal region. Accumulation of fat tissue in this region may have hormonal and immune activity, and thus the potential to cause metabolic disease, between that of visceral fat tissue and other areas of subcutaneous fat tissue.

However, other subcutaneous fat tissues also might contribute to metabolic disease, if the fat cells become too enlarged and “sick.” Admittedly, subcutaneous fat cells typically are larger, and capable of storing more fat when needed. However, subcutaneous fat tissue represents the largest proportion of fat tissue in the body, and is the major source of leptin.

One potentially unfavorable effect of leptin is to increase blood pressure, as observed in animals. In humans, the observation of leptin-induced hypertension is not as yet conclusive. But to the extent that leptin may increase blood pressure, then the increase in leptin with subcutaneous fat cells (particularly when they become enlarged) could hardly be characterized as “protective.”

Other potentially detrimental effects of enlarged subcutaneous fat tissue relate to free fatty acids. During fasting, the body can obtain energy through the release of free fatty acids from the triglycerides in fat cells. The fatty acids thus become available for release into the blood. If too high a concentration of certain fatty acids accumulates in the blood because of sick fat tissue, and the body is unable to recruit more healthy fat cells, then existing healthy fat cells become engorged (and thus also sick). The result is that blood fatty acid concentrations increase to levels toxic to tissues such as liver, muscle, and pancreas, and lead to a range of pathological metabolic conditions.

There are grounds for suspicion that sick abdominal fat tissue may produce factors that cause subcutaneous fat tissue to also become “sick” and further contribute to metabolic diseases.

In summary, although abdominal or visceral fat tissue is best described to contribute to metabolic disease, abdominal fat is by no means the only fat tissue depot that has the potential to become “sick” and capable of contributing to metabolic ill health.

Read more about this topic:  Adiposopathy, Pathophysiology

Other articles related to "anatomy":

... for lecturers and demonstrators in anatomy and pathology ... prepared by a prosector – a person who is well versed in anatomy and who therefore prepares a specimen so that others may study and learn anatomy from it ...
Pale-throated Sloth - Description - Anatomy
... The mouth is lined by a black colored mucosa, although the large and heavy tongue is pink ... The palate is wrinkled in texture, and the tongue is lined with numerous grooves, apparently adaptations to the sloth's diet ...
Guy De Chauliac - Works - Chirurgia Magna - Emphasis On Anatomy
... be seen in the latter's belief that surgeons should have a thorough understanding of anatomy ... He wrote, "A surgeon who does not know his anatomy is like a blind man carving a log" ...
Somatosensory System - Anatomy - Brain
... A relationship between the somatosensory cortical areas and their projection of the body was discovered by recording electrical activity in the human cortex after mechanosensory stimulation of different body parts during neurosurgical procedures ... These data led to the construction of somatotopic maps in which a Somatotopic arrangement was generated ...
Anatomy - Other Branches
... Comparative anatomy relates to the comparison of anatomical structures (both gross and microscopic) in different animals ... Anthropological anatomy or physical anthropology relates to the comparison of the anatomy of different races of humans ... Artistic anatomy relates to anatomic studies for artistic reasons ...

Famous quotes containing the word anatomy:

    I love to see, when leaves depart,
    The clear anatomy arrive,
    Roy Campbell (1902–1957)

    Man is a shrewd inventor, and is ever taking the hint of a new machine from his own structure, adapting some secret of his own anatomy in iron, wood, and leather, to some required function in the work of the world.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)

    But a man must keep an eye on his servants, if he would not have them rule him. Man is a shrewd inventor, and is ever taking the hint of a new machine from his own structure, adapting some secret of his own anatomy in iron, wood, and leather, to some required function in the work of the world. But it is found that the machine unmans the user. What he gains in making cloth, he loses in general power.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)