Acute Decompensated Heart Failure - Treatment - Surgery

Surgery

Certain scenarios will require emergent consultation with cardiothoracic surgery. Heart failure due to acute aortic regurgitation is a surgical emergency associated with high mortality. Heart failure may occur after rupture of ventricular aneurysm. These can form after myocardial infarction. If it ruptures on the free wall, it will cause cardiac tamponade. If it ruptures on the intraventricular septum, it can create a ventricular septal defect. Other causes of cardiac tamponade may also require surgical intervention, although emergent treatment at bedside may be adequate. It should also be determined whether the patient had a history of a repaired congenital heart disease as they often have complex cardiac anatomy with artificial grafts and shunts that may sustain damage, leading to acute decompensated heart failure.

In some cases, doctors recommend surgery to treat the underlying problem that led to heart failure. Different procedures are available depending on the level of necessity and include coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve repair or replacement, or heart transplantation. During these procedures, devices such as heart pumps, pacemakers, or defibrillators might be implanted. The treatment of heart disease is rapidly changing and thus new therapies for acute heart failure treatment are being introduced to save more lives from these massive attacks.

Bypass surgery is performed by removing a vein from the arm or leg, or an artery from the chest and replacing the blocked artery in the heart. This allows the blood to flow more freely through the heart. Valve repair is where the valve that is causing heart failure is modified by removing excess valve tissues that cause them to close too tightly. In some cases, annuloplasty is required to replace the ring around the valves. If the repair of the valve isn't possible, it is replaced by an artificial heart valve. The final step is heart replacement. When severe heart failure is present and medicines or other heart procedures are not effective, the diseased heart needs to be replaced.

Another common procedure used to treat heart failure patients is an angioplasty. Is a procedure used to improve the symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD), reduce the damage to the heart muscle after a heart attack, and reduce the risk of death in some patients. This procedure is performed by placing a balloon in the heart to open an artery that is blocked by atherosclerosis or a build up of plaque on the artery walls. Patients who are experiencing heart failure because of CAD or recent heart attack, can benefit from this procedure.

A pacemaker is a small device that's placed in the chest or abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms. They work by sending electric pulses to the heart to prompt it to beat at a rate that is considered to be normal and are used to treat patients with arrhythmias. They can be used to treat hearts that are classified as either a tachycardia that beats too fast, or a bradycardia that beats too slow.

Read more about this topic:  Acute Decompensated Heart Failure, Treatment

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