Active Measures (Russian: Активные мероприятия) were a form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB) to influence the course of world events, "in addition to collecting intelligence and producing politically correct assessment of it". Active measures ranged "from media manipulations to special actions involving various degrees of violence". They were used both abroad and domestically. They included disinformation, propaganda, counterfeiting official documents, assassinations, and political repression, such as penetration in churches, and persecution of political dissidents.
Active measures included the establishment and support of international front organizations (e.g. the World Peace Council); foreign communist, socialist and opposition parties; wars of national liberation in the Third World; and underground, revolutionary, insurgency, criminal, and terrorist groups. The intelligence agencies of Eastern Bloc states also contributed to the program, providing operatives and intelligence for assassinations and other types of covert operations.
Retired KGB Maj. Gen. Oleg Kalugin described active measures as "the heart and soul of Soviet intelligence": "Not intelligence collection, but subversion: active measures to weaken the West, to drive wedges in the Western community alliances of all sorts, particularly NATO, to sow discord among allies, to weaken the United States in the eyes of the people of Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and thus to prepare ground in case the war really occurs."
Active measures was a system of special courses taught in the Andropov Institute of KGB situated at SVR headquarters in Yasenevo, near Moscow. The head of "active measures department" was Yuri Modin, former controller of the Cambridge Five spy ring.
... Active measures, however, reflected a national effort to influence other countries to act in concert with Soviet goals ... These measures could involve state organizations up to and including the Politburo, much as the WWII British organization for strategic deception, the London Controlling Section, and its US counterpart ... Much of the Soviet responsibilities for active measures was focused in the KGB ...
... Active measures" (Russian Активные мероприятия) were a form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services to influence the course of world events, "in addition to ... Active measures ranged "from media manipulations to special actions involving various degree of violence" ... Active measures included the establishment and support of international front organizations (e.g ...
... In Soviet theory, influencing policy was one aspect of what they termed active measures (aktivnyye meropriyatiya) ... Active measures have a different connotation than the Western concept of direct action (DA), although Soviet active measures could include "wet affairs" (mokrie dela ...
Famous quotes containing the words measures and/or active:
“Away with the cant of Measures, not men!Mthe idle supposition that it is the harness and not the horses that draw the chariot along. No, Sir, if the comparison must be made, if the distinction must be taken, men are everything, measures comparatively nothing.”
—George Canning (17701827)
“We have not passed that subtle line between childhood and adulthood until we move from the passive voice to the active voicethat is, until we have stopped saying It got lost, and say, I lost it.”
—Sydney J. Harris (b. 1917)