The 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry was first constituted in 1813, shortly after the formation of the 1st Battalion, 30th Infantry. President Madison formed the 30th Regiment to combat English forces during the War of 1812. However, the regiment spent much of the war in training, and did not see much action. After the war ended, the 30th Regiment was disbanded.
When the Civil War began, the 30th Regiment was recreated and reassigned as the 12th Infantry Regiment. The regiment made its home at Fort Hamilton in New York, and shortly thereafter traveled down to Washington, District of Colombia. Until 1862, the regiment was designated as a reserve Brigade in the Army of the Potomac. However, the ravages of the Civil War took their toll on the Union Army, and so the 2nd Battalion entered action in 1862. The regiment saw action in many battles during the course of the Civil War. After the end of the Civil War, the 12th Brigade was disbanded, and the 2nd Battalion did not take part in either the Indian Wars or the Spanish-American War.
In 1901, however, the Philippine Insurrection raged. The 2nd Battalion was re-formed, once more under the 30th Regiment, and sent to the Philippines, was they spent most of their time in the Mindiano Province.
In 1918, the 2nd Battalion saw action during World War I, under the 3rd Infantry Division. The 2nd Battalion saw action at the Chateau Thierry-Marne Counteroffensive, where the 30th Regiment successfully held off 25 German counter-attacks. After the Marne Counteroffensive, the 2nd Battalion saw action in the Somme Defensive, the battle of Chateau Thierry, the Aisne Defensive, the Champagne-Marne Defensive, the St. Mihiel Offensive (1st Army Sector,) the Battle of Meuse–Argonne, and the Aisne-Marne Offensive. After the war ended, the 2nd Battalion served as a part of the Army of Occupation of Germany.
In 1919, the 3rd Infantry Division moved back to the US, and set up at Fort Lewis. The 30th Infantry, in turn, was stationed there, where they remained until the start of World War II in late 1941. The Regiment moved to Fort Ord, California, where they practiced amphibious tactics for the battles in North Africa. The 30th took part in Operation Torch, the liberation of French Northern Africa, and helped liberate the city of Casablanca. The 30th stayed near Tunisia until 1943, during which they prepared for the invasion of Sicily.
In July 1943, the 30th Infantry and US 3rd Infantry Division was designated as "Joss Force" for the Invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky). On 10 July 10, 1943 the US 3rd Infantry Division moved on shore captured and secured the City of Licata. Within 3 hours of landing the US 3rd Infantry Division captured and secured. Within two days of landing they had captured and secured the City of Agrigento. Four days later, the US 3rd Infantry Division captured the City of Palermo, traversing 100 miles of the roughest terrain on Sicily. They arrived in Palermo on 16 July 1943. The 30th moved into the lead for the US 3rd Infantry Division, moving eastward toward the city of Messina.
During the Battle of San Agata General Patton specifically chose the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry to move to the right flank of the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division. The objective was for the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment to make a sea-borne landing at Brolo and cut off the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division from escaping Messina. The 2nd Battalion failed in their first attempt to cut the 29th off. However, General Patton ordered the battalion to re-engage the enemy. The second time, the battalion successfully maneuvered around the 29th Division. The 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry successfully engaged an entire division for as long as possible, nearly and hour and a half. Although the majority of the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division successfully retrograded, the 2nd Battalion received the Presidential Unit Citation award.
The 2nd Battalion then continued operations throughout the “boot” of Italy, including operations in Salerno, Acerno, Volturara, Avellino, and Mount Rotundo. On 22 January 1944, the 30th Regiment conducted amphibious operations at Anzio. This marked the 2nd Battalion's fifth amphibious operation and was also its most costly battle. On 4 June 1944, the regiment entered Rome.
On 28 August 1944, the 30th made its final amphibious landing at Cavalaire, a town in Southern France. It spent the majority of September through December 1944 fighting in the Vosges Mountains and began its assault on the Siegfried Line in Austria on 15 March 1945. On 8 May 1945, the war ended, and the 2nd Battalion began stability operations in Western Europe.
The 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry was relieved on 6 April 1951 from assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division and subsequently reassigned on 2 December 1954 to the 3rd Infantry Division. It was inactivated again on 1 July 1957 at Fort Benning, Georgia, and relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division.
The unit was redesignated on 3 January 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 30th Infantry, its organic elements concurrently constituted. The battle group was formally activated on 22 January 1958 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
It was reorganized and redesignated 1 April 1963 as the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry, and assigned to the 3d Infantry Division. It was again inactivated on 16 June 1989 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division.
On 16 January 2005 the unit was assigned to the to the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and activated at Fort Polk, Louisiana. It was Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment.
Read more about this topic: 30th Infantry Regiment (United States)
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